The prince : Machiavelli, Niccolò, 1469-1527

This classic treatise on politics is available in English and Italian.
Niccolo Machiavelli was born in Florence in 1469. The Prince was written in 1513 and published in 1532, five years after Machiavelli's death in 1527. Machiavelli attempted to use his treatise to gain an advisory position with either the Pope or the Duke. He was unsuccessful.
The Prince contains advice to a ruler on how best to stay in power. Machiavelli believed that for monarchs, "the end justifies the means."